Ecosystems Center post doctoral scientist KathiJo Jankowski led the installation of a new experiment in Brazil that will test potential environmental effects of the intensification of Amazon
cropping practices. The experiment takes place at Fazenda Tanguro, an 80,000 ha farm in Mato Grosso state, where during the last 20 years soybean farming has replaced tropical forest over an area nearly the size of New England. In the last decade, soybean farming has intensified and farmers now plant a corn crop following soybean harvest on more than half of Mato Grosso's soybean cropland.
Cropping of corn is important because, in contrast to soybean, which is a legume and fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere, corn requires fertilization with nitrogen. This experiment, set up with the collaboration of farm owners Grupo Maggi, will measure greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching losses from plots treated with amounts of nitrogen fertilizer ranging from 0 to 200 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare.
The project is led by Marcia Macedo at the Woods Hole Research Center and Chris Neill at MBL and involves partners Paulo Brando and a research team from the Institute for Amazon Environmental Research, a Brazilian nongovernmental organization, Carlos CEP Cerri and Alex Krusche from the University of São Paulo, Gillian Galford at the University of Vermont, Eric Davidson, Michael Coe and Paul Lefebvre from the Woods Hole Research Center, Ecosystems Center postdoctoral and Richard McHorney from the Ecosystems Center.
The US Global Change Research Program today released the National Climate Assessment. The Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States. Ecosystems Center Distinguished Scientist Jerry Melillo chaired the 60-member Federal Advisory Committee that produced the report. The Assessment was produced by a team of more than 300 experts and was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including the National Academy of Sciences.
The Assessment unequivocally states that climate change is happening now. The U.S. and the world are warming, global sea level is rising, and some types of extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and more severe. These changes have already resulted in a wide range of impacts across every region of the Nation, its ecosystems and many sectors of the economy.
Links to highlights and the full document are available at http://www.globalchange.gov/
Jerry Melillo, Distinguished Scientist and Director Emeritus at the Ecosystems Center, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Election to the Academy recognizes distinguished and continuing achievements in original research, and is widely considered a mark of excellence in science. It is considered one of the highest honors a scientist can attain.
Melillo, who is also a professor at Brown University through the Brown-MBL Partnership, was one of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates of the NAS to be announced this week. Thirteen other MBL-affiliated scientists, listed below, were also elected to the Academy this week, including Timothy Mitchison of Harvard Medical School, a visiting investigator and chair of the MBL’s Science Council. In addition, four University of Chicago faculty members were elected to the Academy this week.
“I am thrilled that Jerry’s groundbreaking work, along with his significant national service, has been recognized by his election to the National Academy,” said MBL President and Director Joan Ruderman. “For more than four decades, Jerry and his team have been leading the way in understanding earth systems, and bringing the best scientific information available to national and international policy makers as they seek ways to enable our society to adapt to a changing climate.”
The “big issues” in climate change science have shifted over the past 4 to 6 years, with several difficult problems resolved while new research challenges rose to the fore. Scientists who are leading advisors on climate change to federal and international policymakers will examine the state-of-the-science in “Research Challenges in Climate Change: What’s New and Where are We Going?” on Feb. 14 at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting in Chicago.
“The session will be very forward looking. What we would like to do better to serve both science and the public in addressing climate change?” says co-organizer Jerry Melillo, distinguished scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., and chair of the federal advisory committee that prepared the Third U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) for release this spring.
The panel will offer a scientific reckoning of issues resolved and uncovered in preparing the NCA over the past four years, as well as the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), released in late 2013. The NCA details climate change impacts in United States regions and sectors, while the IPCC’s assessment is global.
Read the entire MBL Press Release here.
Like all of us, scientists think in scenarios: If this happened, what then?
Results of their efforts to understand and anticipate global environmental changes through the process of scenario thinking and ecological forecasting are the topic of the annual National Science Foundation (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Mini-Symposium.
The forum will be held on Friday, Feb. 21, 2014, at NSF headquarters in Arlington, Va.
Presentations, including one by Ecosystems Center senior scientist Gaius Shaver who is the lead PI of the Arctic LTER, will address social and ecological change; ecosystem vulnerability, resilience and adaptability; and why long-term data are essential to understanding and predicting future responses to natural and human-caused environmental changes.
Results from scenario-thinking and simulations will be presented for ecosystems from forests to lakes to the open ocean.
Anne E. Giblin, a senior scientist at the MBL Ecosystems Center has been named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the world’s largest general scientific society, and publisher of the journal, Science. Giblin was elected for distinguished contributions to the field of biogeochemistry, especially relating to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in sediments and soils from both freshwater and marine environments. Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers.
Full story on the MBL News Blog
The Ecosystems Center was recently awarded a National Science Foundation (NSF) Field Station and Marine Laboratory renovation grant to improve our Marshview Field Station which is the field site of the Plum Island Estuary Long Term Ecological Research (PIE-LTER) project located on the Parker River in Newburyport, MA. The $344,000 grant led by senior scientist Anne Giblin will provide key infrastructure improvements to the field station that will increase its laboratory capacity and provide modern field lab facilities as well as make key improvements in the barn to accommodate the PIE-LTER internet server.
History of the Field Station
The MBL began research in the watersheds and estuaries around Plum Island Sound in 1992 and became an LTER site in 1998. From 1994-2003 the PIE-LTER operated solely out of a very small space in Rowley rented from the Essex County Greenbelt. This space consisted of a small house with 2 bedrooms and a small basement area that is mostly used for storage of equipment. The 2001 NSF-LTER review team felt these facilities were inadequate and strongly recommended that the PIE-LTER procure additional facilities to support the research program. In response, the Marshview Farm was acquired and established as the Marshview Field Station by the MBL in 2003. The 2007 review team felt that the “expansion of the originally constrained scientific and logistical facilities have been effectively addressed through the purchase of the Marshview Farm which will meet most of their future field support needs if further alterations and upgrading of both the house and the adjoining barn facilities can be accomplished.” We now have the funds necessary to make these key infrastructure improvements so that our facilities can accommodate our increasing research portfolio.