Precipitation Data

Several spatially explicit precipitation data sets have been used to extrapolate TEM across the the conterminous United States (VEMAP), Alaska (VEMAP) and the globe (Legates and Willmott, Cramer and Leemans, CCMLP and CRU). In addition, TEM has also been coupled to MIT's Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) to examine future precipitation under various climate change scenarios.

Unfortunately, agreements with many of the data suppliers prevent us from redistributing the data sets used in our model extrapolations. However, we are able to provide links in the table below to sites where the reader may be able to obtain these data sets with their own arrangements with the data suppliers.

History of Input Data Sets Used for Regional Extrapolations
Data Set TEM 1.0 TEM 2.0 TEM 3.0 TEM 4.0 TEM 4.1 TEM 4.2 TEM 4.3 TEM 5.0 TEM 6.0
Legates and Willmott X X X            
Cramer and Leemans       X          
VEMAP       Phase I Phase II     Phase II  
MIT IGSM         X X X    
Carbon Cycle Model Linkage Project (CCMLP)           X X X  
Climate Research Unit (CRU)               X X


Cramer, W. P., and R. Leemans. 2001. Global 30-Year Mean Monthly Climatology, 1930-1960, V[ersion]. 2.1 (Cramer and Leemans). Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Kittel, T.G.F, N.A. Rosenbloom, T.H. Painter, D.S. Schimel, H.H. Fisher, A. Grimsdell, VEMAP Participants, C. Daly, and E.R. Hunt, Jr. 1996. The VEMAP Phase I database: An integrated input dataset for ecosystem and vegetation modeling for the conterminous United States. CDROM and World Wide Web (URL=

Kittel, TGF, N.A. Rosenbloom, J.A. Royle, C. Daly, W.P. Gibson, H.H. Fisher, P. Thornton, D.N. Yates, S. Aulenbach, C. Kaufman, R. McKeown, D. Bachelet, D.S. Schimel, VEMAP2 Participants. 2004. VEMAP Phase 2 bioclimatic database. I. Gridded historical (20th) century climate for modeling ecosystem dynamics across the conterminous USA. Climate Research 27(2), 151-170.

Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott (1988) Global air temperature and precipitation data archive. Department of Geography, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

McGuire, A. D., S. Sitch, J. S. Clein, R. Dargaville, G. Esser, J. Foley, M. Heimann, F. Joos, J. Kaplan, D. W. Kicklighter, R. A. Meier, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore III, I. C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, T. Reichenau, A. Schloss, H. Tian, L. J. Williams and U. Wittenberg (2001) Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: analyses of CO2, climate and land-use effects with four process-based ecosystem models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(1), 183-206. (for CCMLP)

Mitchell, T.D., 2004. An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high resolution grids. About to be submitted.(for CRU TS2.1)

Mitchell, T.D., T. R. Carter, P. D. Jones, M. Hulme and M. New (2004) A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record (1901-2000) and 16 scenarios (2001-2100). Working Paper 55. Tyne Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK (for CRU TS 2.02)

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