Scientists Urge Formation of National Network to Accelerate Climate Change Action

April 4th, 2019 @

A non-federal network that will leverage science to manage climate change risks in the United States is urgently needed, recommends a report released today by a group of 36 climate researchers, state/local/tribal officials, and other experts including Jerry Melillo, Distinguished Scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) and former chairman of the U.S. National Climate Assessments.

An early online version of the report, “Evaluating Knowledge to Support Climate Action,” is published today by the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. The report summary and a full press release are available here.

The report’s key recommendations are to establish a non-federal network to assess how to apply science in making and implementing decisions; focus these assessments on the common problems and challenges that climate risk managers face; and use new methods such as artificial intelligence to support climate risk management.

“This network will build off the U.S. National Climate Assessments to help communities establish pragmatic, science-based actions and pathways to manage the climate risks that are specific to their region,” said Melillo.

To provide interim leadership for this national network, the group also announced today the establishment of the Science for Climate Action Network (SCAN), which will coordinate preparation of a next-generation of climate assessments and serve as a backbone organization for groups that already are beginning to incorporate climate science in their work.

In 2016, a Federal Advisory Committee was convened to recommend how to increase the application of the National Climate Assessments to inform action. This committee was disbanded by the Trump Administration in 2017, but members and additional experts reconvened as the Independent Advisory Committee to complete the present report.

by Diana Kenney

Originally posted on The Well


Rooted in research: A study looks at effects of climate change on a less visible matter

January 15th, 2019 @

Global warming brings to mind scenes of devastating natural disasters and polar bears on shrinking ice caps. But new research is studying the effects of climate change on a less visible matter — interactions between plant roots and the surrounding soil, particularly relative to carbon.

The results of the study could shed light on global warming’s influence on food production and carbon storage.

“This is the frontier of what we don’t understand,” said Marco Keiluweit, a biogeochemist and assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “It will give us the opportunity to explore these broader problems of climate change.”

Full article by Ysabelle Kempe, Globe Correspondent, available on

Team Studies how Viral Infections in Plants may Affect Carbon Storage in Soil

January 9th, 2019 @

Photo illustration by Zoe Cardon

MBL Senior Scientist Zoe Cardon has received a collaborative grant from the Department of Energy to study how viral infections in plants can affect the fate of the largest pool of organic carbon stored in soils: organic carbon bound to minerals.

As carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise, driving further climate change, it becomes more and more urgent to understand how plant roots, soil microbes, and soil minerals interact to control whether soils store carbon or release CO2.

One way that plant roots strongly contribute to soil carbon storage is by producing sugars, organic acids, and even whole cells that are lost to soil. But there is a twist in the story. Certain types of compounds derived from roots may also destabilize the bonds between soil  minerals and existing soil organic matter (SOM), making that SOM more vulnerable to microbial attack and decomposition. Soil carbon loss, instead of storage, may result.

The question then becomes what types of compounds, and how much of them, are lost from plant roots to soils. Cardon and colleagues have found that, upon infection with particular plant viruses, plant roots can lose so many compounds to their surroundings that they become literally “sticky” to the touch. Understanding whether and how these “sticky roots” drive increased decomposition of existing mineral-stabilized soil carbon promises to transform our understanding of the importance of common virus infection for soil carbon dynamics and global change.

Co-principal investigators with Cardon, the lead principal investigator on this project, include Marco Keiluweit, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Carolyn Malmstrom, Michigan State University; and William J Riley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.


Originally published in The Well

Improving Predictions of Soil Microbe Responses to Global Change

November 27th, 2018 @

In most soil microbial communities, the controls on growth and metabolism are poorly understood and are simply too complex to be included in computer models of climate, soil fertility for agriculture, or waste Improving Predictions of Soil Microbe Responses to Global Changemanagement.

To determine the principles by which soil microbial communities function under varying environmental constraints, development of a scalable biogeochemical modeling approach is critical.

In a new collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), MBL Senior Scientists Joe Vallino and Zoe Cardon will develop a flexible framework for analyzing microbial biogeochemistry from the perspective of maximum entropy production (MEP) (a concept that proposes complex systems will likely organize to maximize dissipation of useful energy).

The work takes advantage of the high diversity of microbial communities to enable thermodynamically based predictions about system-level biogeochemical responses to global change.

Ultimately, the goal is to integrate sensor-derived information of soil properties with the MEP model to predict shifting activities of microbial communities in soils using far fewer model parameters than would be required with conventional modeling. The project will also support undergraduate research activities as part of the MBL’s Semester in Environmental Science program.

This grant is through the NSF’s “Signals in the Soil” program.

Caption: Example of a simplified soil metabolic network model representing the conversion of soil organic matter (SOM) to methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2) overlaying an image of methanogens stained with SYBR green. Credit: Joe Vallino and Zoe Cardon

Originally Posted in The Well.

Five Reasons the Earth’s Climate Depends on Forests | Climate and Land Use Alliance

October 10th, 2018 @
MBL Distinguished Scientist Jerry Melillo and MBL Fellow Robert Howarth of Cornell University are among the 40 signatories to this statement issued by the Climate and Land Use Alliance.

Statement from Scientist SignatoriesFive Reasons the Earth’s Climate Depends on Forests | Climate and Land Use Alliance

“The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will issue a new report soon on the impacts of 1.5°C of global warming. Limiting average temperature rise to 1.5°C requires both drastic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and removing excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. While high-tech carbon dioxide removal solutions are under development, the “natural technology” of forests is currently the only proven means of removing and storing atmospheric CO2 at a scale that can meaningfully contribute to achieving carbon balance.

In advance of the IPCC report, we highlight five often overlooked reasons why limiting global warming requires protecting and sustainably managing the forests we have, and restoring the forests we’ve lost. Read more …

Source: Five Reasons the Earth’s Climate Depends on Forests – Climate and Land Use Alliance

Long-Term Study of Oil Spill Impacts in Gulf of Mexico is Renewed

October 10th, 2018 @

Anne Giblin, Interim Director of the MBL Ecosystems Center, has received funding for a study on “Oil Spills as Stressors in Coastal Marshes: The Legacy and the Future.”

Long-Term Study of Oil Spill Impacts in Gulf of Mexico is Renewed

The grant is a sub-award from the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium (LUMCON), which has been tracking the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. This accident caused the largest offshore oil spill in U.S. history and caused extensive damage to the habitats along the Gulf Coast.

Giblin’s research will focus on understanding the impact of oil on plant production and biogeochemical cycles in Gulf of Mexico marshes, including in controlled experiment areas being subjected to several levels of oiling.

LUMCON, which partners with numerous ecosystems scientists from across the country, has been studying the impacts of Deepwater Horizon for seven years. This continuing award from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative will allow the team to complete aspects of experiments and synthesize the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon spill on coastal Louisiana communities, including topics such as:

  • possible linkages between oil contaminants and shoreline erosion
  • changes to coastal vegetation
  • differences in greenhouse gas emissions from coastal ecosystems
  • changes in carbon flows through wetland food webs
  • constructing computer models of how post-spill oil moved through localized sections of the Gulf Coast, and
  • testing the impacts of oil on Gulf Coast marshes using controlled experiments.

Photo: Sediment in the Gulf of Mexico. Credit: MODIS Satellite Image – NASA

Originally published in The Well: MBL News from the Source

MBL Team to Assess How Managing Forests May Reduce Nitrogen Load to Cape Cod Waters

August 21st, 2018 @

MBL Ecosystems Center scientists Ivan Valiela and Javier Lloret have received a grant to quantify the potential of forested land cover management to reduce nitrogen loads in several Cape Cod watersheds. This subaward is from the U.S. Geological Survey via the University of Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center.

MBL Team to Assess How Managing Forests May Reduce Nitrogen Load to Cape Cod Waters

To protect the quality of fresh and estuarine waters, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has issued regulations requiring reductions of nitrogen loads in every coastal municipality. The cost of updating conventional sewage treatment plants is currently prohibitive, so there is growing interest in assessing alternative options for controlling nitrogen loads. The Cape Cod Commission has assumed a leading role in compiling information on assessing and applying alternative options, and in transferring that information to a variety of stakeholders by creating a Technologies Matrix database.

With this award, Valiela and Lloret will develop a section of the Cape Cod Commission Technologies Matrix on land cover management as an option for controlling nitrogen loads. To carry this out, they will model nitrogen inputs to several Cape Cod watersheds with different degrees of forest cover. They will quantify decadal trajectories of forest cover and associated nitrogen retention; partition retention of nitrogen in forests and other land covers; and test whether degree of urban development, decreases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition, lag effects during transit through the watersheds, and land cover configuration alter nitrogen retention within forests.

This grant is a collaboration with Heather McElroy and Anne Reynolds of the Cape Cod Commission.

Photo: Waquoit Bay, Falmouth, Mass., one of the Cape Cod watersheds under study. Credit: Javier Lloret

Story originally published on The Well

Study Aims to Understand Invasive Algae's Success in New England Waters

May 14th, 2018 @

Peredo and Cardon working in the MRC. Credit: Tom Kleindinst

One of the world’s most successful marine invasive species — the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla — is expanding its range. While originally found in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, it has found its way around the world, including into the Atlantic, and is creeping northward around the coasts of Cape Cod. As it moves along this path, it is edging into the range of its native, common relative Gracilaria tikvahiae. Both species are currently found in Waquoit Bay, Falmouth.

This could mean bad news for some flora and fauna indigenous to the Cape Cod area. The invasive species can reduce eelgrass bed productivity and can change the communities of invertebrates in coastal zones important for fisheries. The native and invasive Gracilaria species share many characteristics given their common genetic background, but clearly there is something about the invasive species that makes it a superior competitor.

MBL research Scientist Elena Lopez Peredo is working to understand what it is about the invasive that makes it robust in local waters. She has established experimental tanks at the Marine Resources Center (MRC) at MBL, and is studying locally-gathered algae as well as representatives of the native and invasive species isolated by Dr. Charles Yarish at University of Conneticut.

Red algae naturally look red because they have pigments that strongly absorb green light and use it to grow. This means an important part of the MRC experimental set-up is providing a light spectrum to match the red, green, and blue wavelengths found in natural sunlight. Bright lights donated by Noribachi, Inc. (Harbor City, CA) have that full wavelength spectrum and are tailored to the needs of this experiment.

Several researchers have suggested that the invasive Gracilaria is better at preventing the establishment of colonies of disease-causing and/or fouling microscopic organisms on its surfaces. (This community is called the microbiome.) If that is true, how does the control system work? Depending on the kinds of organisms that get established on algal surfaces, microbiomes can actually be good for algal growth or they can be bad. Understanding what controls the formation of the microbiome and its activities is important for understanding the ecology of algae in natural coastal ecosystems and important for aquaculture of marine algae.

There could be some industrial applications to this research, as well.  Gracilaria species are also used to produce agar, antifouling and antimicrobial compounds, so understanding how these red algae encourage the “right” microbiome and discourage the “wrong” organisms is potentially very useful.

By Zoe Cardon, MBL Senior Scientist; Originally posted in The Well.

MBL Scientists Describe Major Differences Between Related Desert and Aquatic Algae

April 10th, 2018 @

Staying alive in the desert is no simple matter for green algae whose evolutionary ancestors lived in the ocean. How can some algal species survive extreme drought, while others desiccate and die? Understanding this difference can provide important information on requirements for drought tolerance that it may be possible to apply to larger plants as the climate changes.

Researchers have described a new genetic model to study exactly this question in a paper published in Journal of Cell Science. In a group of five closely related species of green algae called Scenedesmaceae, three that have adapted to life in desert crust can withstand multiple rounds of desiccation, whereas their two aquatic cousins perish after drying out once. The paper also details major reproductive differences between the two groups.

“How can that be?” asks MBL Senior Scientist Zoe Cardon. “What in the genetic makeup of these species is making such a difference for both their form and their function?”

Cardon brought these microbes into her lab at the MBL, and she and Research Scientist Elena Lopez Peredo either dried them out rapidly, using airflow through a chemical hood, or more gradually at the bench. They then observed the effect of desiccation on each species. They saw that after the aquatic microbes had dried, no amount of water could revive them. The desert microbes, however, showed evidence of active photosynthesis after multiple rounds of desiccation and rehydration.

“As they dry out, you can see the photosynthesis just shutting down,” says Cardon. “You add a little more water and then, poof! It’s off to the races again.”

Read the full article by Stephanie M. McPherson here>>

Team Discovers a Significant Role for Nitrate in the Arctic Landscape

March 26th, 2018 @

Nitrogen, an essential plant nutrient, is most readily absorbed by plants in its ammonium and nitrate forms. Because of the very low nitrate levels found in arctic tundra soil, scientists had assumed that plants in this biome do not use nitrate. But a new study co-authored by four Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) Ecosystems Center scientists challenges this notion. The study has important implications for predicting which arctic plant species will dominate as the climate warms, as well as how much carbon tundra ecosystems can store.

The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that plants in northern Alaska’s tussock tundra took up nitrate at comparable rates to vegetation in nitrate-rich ecosystems. Nitrate contributed about one-third of the nitrogen the tundra plants used. Some of the species studied, such as Polygonum bistorta, a pink flowering plant, took up nitrate at even higher rates than species found in low-latitude, high-nitrate environments.

The findings are important in the context of human-caused climate change, which is expected to increase nitrogen, and potentially nitrate, levels in tundra soil. As the climate warms, the microbial processes that generate nitrate could speed up. In addition, permafrost — a layer of soil below the surface that remains frozen throughout the year — could thaw, adding additional nitrogen to the ecosystem. Some of this nitrogen could be converted to nitrate.

The tussock tundra covers a large part of northern Alaska and is currently composed of sedges, herbaceous ground cover, and woody shrubs (about a third coverage for each). The landscape’s productivity is limited by nitrogen availability. If released from this limitation, woody shrub species, such as birch and willow, could become more dominant and shade out other plants as the climate warms. The discovery that nitrate is an important nitrogen source for tundra plants will need to be factored into future projections of species composition.

“As the nutrients start cycling faster and the vegetation starts growing faster, that should stimulate all the vegetation on the tundra. After a while, the woody species should be able to overtop the ones that don’t have stems, that can’t stand up that high. So you tend to lose the sedges and the mosses and the lichens,” explained study co-author Ed Rastetter, a senior scientist at the MBL Ecosystems Center and principal investigator for the National Science Foundation’s Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska, where part of the research was conducted.

Continue article >>

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