Marine Biological Laboratory/University of Chicago

STANDARDS FOR SCIENTIFIC DIVING MANUAL

Updated December 2018 AAUS
Updated 21 March 2019 MBL

Based on The American Academy of Underwater Sciences Guidelines

FOREWORD

Since 1951 the scientific diving community has endeavored to promote safe, effective diving through self-imposed diver training and education programs.  Over the years, manuals for diving safety have been circulated between organizations, revised and modified for local implementation, and have resulted in an enviable safety record.

This document represents the minimal safety standards for scientific diving at the present day.  As diving science progresses so must this standard, and it is the responsibility of every member of the Academy to see that it always reflects state of the art, safe diving practice.

American Academy of Underwater Sciences

Acknowledgements

The Academy thanks the numerous dedicated individual and organizational members for their contributions and editorial comments in the production of these standards.

Revision History

Available at www.aaus.org/About/Diving Standards

This Diving Safety Manual has been and reviewed, rewritten and accepted by the DCB to meet the current needs of the Marine Biological Laboratory located in Woods Hole MA.  It is the purpose of the Marine Biological Laboratory, as an organizational member of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences, to ensure that MBL adheres to and is compliant with the most current version of the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving.

The Marine Biological Laboratory(MBL), a private nonprofit institution established in 1888, as an international center for research, education, and training in biology.  The MBL hosts major year round research programs including those in cell and developmental biology, molecular evolution, neurobiology and sensory physiology, and ecosystems studies.  Each summer, more than 800 scientists and advanced students from around the world join MBL’s year round community to study a diverse variety of aquatic life.   Many of these studies require diving activities as part of the research, being conducted.  In order to safely conduct these activities MBL complies with standards established by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS).

Marine Biological Laboratory Scientific Diving Manual

This manual contains all policies and standards concerning our research diving program.

This page contains the indices to the different sections of the manual. Each Section is kept on a different web page to speed up loading and browsing. You can return to this index from any page by clicking on “Dive Manual TOC” in the menu to the left.

1.00 General Policies

1.10 The Scientific Diving Standards
1.20 Operational Control
1.30 Consequence of Violation of Regulations by Scientific Divers
1.40 Consequences of Violation of Regulations by Organizational Members
1.50 Record Maintenance

2.00 Diving Regulations

2.10 Introduction
2.20 Pre-dive Procedures
2.30 Diving Procedures
2.40 Post-dive Procedures
2.50 Emergency Procedures
2.60 Flying after Diving
2.70 Record Keeping Requirements

3.00 Diving Equipment

3.10 General Policy
3.20 Equipment
3.30 Auxiliary Equipment
3.40 Support Equipment
3.50 Equipment Maintenance
3.60 Air Quality Standards

4.00 Scientific Diver Certification And Authorizations

4.10 Prerequisites
4.20 Training
4.30 Diver Certification and Authorizations
4.40 Depth Authorizations
4.50 Maintaining Active Status
4.60 Revocation of Authorization

5.00 Medical Standards

5.10 Medical Requirements
5.20 Frequency of Medical Evaluations
5.30 Information Provided Examining Physician
5.40 Content of Medical Evaluations
5.50 Physician’s Written Report

6.00 Nitrox Diving

6.10 Requirements for Nitrox Authorization
6.20 Minimum Activity to Maintain Authorization
6.30 Operational Requirements
6.40 Nitrox Diving Equipment

Appendices 1-9 (Download Word doc)

Appendix 1 – Diving Medical Exam Overview For The Examining Physician
Appendix 2 – AAUS Medical Evaluation Of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report
Appendix 2b – AAUS/MBL Medical Evaluation Of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report
Appendix 3 – Diving Medical History Form
Appendix 4 – Recommended Physicians With Expertise In Diving Medicine
Appendix 5 – Definition Of Terms
Appendix 6 – MBL/AAUS Request For Diving Reciprocity Form
Verification Of Diver Training And Experience
Appendix 7 – Emergency Action Plan
Appendix 8 – MBL/AAUS Statistics Collection Criteria And Definitions
Appendix 9 – Recommendations For Rescue Of A Submerged Unresponsive Compressed-Gas Diver

Appendix 10 – Dive Plan (Download Word doc)

1.10 The Scientific Diving Standards

Purpose
The purpose of these Scientific Diving Standards is to ensure scientific diving is conducted in a manner that will maximize the protection of scientific divers from accidental injury and/or illness, and to set forth standards for training and certification that will allow a working reciprocity between Organizational Members (OMs or OM).  Fulfillment of these purposes shall be consistent with the furtherance of research and safety, and facilitation of collaborative opportunities between AAUS OMs.

This Manual sets minimum standards for the establishment of American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) recognized scientific diving programs, the organization for the conduct of these programs, and the basic regulations and procedures for safety in scientific diving operations.  It also establishes a framework for reciprocity between AAUS OMs that adhere to these minimum standards.

Historical Perspective
This Manual was developed and written by AAUS by compiling the policies set forth in the diving manuals of several university, private, and governmental scientific diving programs.  These programs share a common heritage with the scientific diving program at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO).  Adherence to the SIO standards has proven both feasible and effective in protecting the health and safety of scientific divers since 1954.

In 1982, OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial diving regulations
(29CFR1910, Subpart T) under certain conditions that are outlined below.  The final guidelines for the exemption became effective in 1985 (Federal Register, Vol. 50, No.6, p.1046).  AAUS is recognized by OSHA as the scientific diving standard setting organization.

Scientific Diving Definition
Scientific diving is defined (29CFR1910.402) as:

“Diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks. Scientific diving does not include performing any tasks usually associated with commercial diving such as: Placing or removing heavy objects underwater; inspection of pipelines and similar objects; construction; demolition; cutting or welding; or the use of explosives.”

Scientific Diving Exemption
The two elements that a diving program must contain as defined by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart T 1910.401(a)(2)(iv) are:

  • a) Diving safety manual which includes at a minimum: Procedures covering all diving operations specific to the program; procedures for emergency care, including recompression and evacuation; and criteria for diver training and certification.
  • b) Diving control (safety) board, with the majority of its members being active divers, which must at a minimum have the authority to: Approve and monitor diving projects; review and revise the diving safety manual; assure compliance with the manual; certify the depths to which a diver has been trained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and, assure adherence to the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by and is in continuous contact with another diver in the water) for SCUBA diving.

OSHA has granted an exemption for scientific diving from commercial diving regulations under the following guidelines (Appendix B to 29 CFR 1910 Subpart T):

  • The Diving Control Board consists of a majority of active scientific divers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program’s operation.
  • The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement of science; therefore, information and data resulting from the project are non-proprietary.
  • The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer. Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are not included within scientific diving.
  • Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must use scientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and therefore, are scientists or scientists-in-training.

Recommendations for Changes to AAUS Manual
As part of the MBL’s annual report, recommendations for modifications of this Manual must be submitted to AAUS for consideration.

1.20 Operational Control

Organizational Member Auspices and Responsibilities

MBL auspices include any scientific diving operation in which an MBL is connected because of ownership of life support equipment used, locations selected, or relationship with the individual(s) concerned. This includes all cases involving the operations of authorized individuals of the MBL or auxiliary organizations, where such individuals are acting within the scope of their authorization.

It is the MBL’s responsibility to adhere to the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving Certification and Operation of Scientific Diving Programs. The administration of the local diving program will reside with the MBL’s Diving Control Board (DCB).

The regulations herein must be observed at all locations where scientific diving is conducted.

Organizational Member Diving Safety Manual

Meeting AAUS minimum standards is a requirement for organizational membership in the Academy. The MBL has developed and maintains a diving safety manual that includes wording on how the OM defines specific policies and procedures required for the proper function of a scientific diving program. The MBL manual must address environmental and working conditions unique to the program’s operations. The MBL diving manual must meet or exceed the AAUS standards.

AAUS standards must be the foundation for the development of the MBL’s scientific diving safety manual. The order and formatting of the MBL’s manual does not have to conform to the AAUS template. The information contained in Volume 1, Sections 1.00 through 5.00 and the Appendices are required for all manuals.  Volume 2, Sections 6.00 through 12.00 are required only when the MBL conducts the specifically referenced diving mode or activity.  Deviations or significant changes to AAUS minimum standards may require justification before approval is granted by the AAUS Standards Committee.

Diving Control Board

  • The Diving Control Board (DCB) must consist and maintain a majority of active scientific divers. Voting members include the Diving Safety Officer (DSO), and other representatives of the diving program such as qualified divers and members selected by procedures established by    A chairperson and a secretary may be chosen from the membership of the board according to local procedure.
  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program’s operation.
  • The DCB must:
    • Establish additional standards, protocols, and operational procedures beyond the AAUS minimums to address MBL’s specific needs and concerns.
    • Approve and monitor diving projects.
    • Review and revise the diving safety manual.
    • Ensure compliance with the diving safety manual.
    • Approve the depth to which a diver has been authorized to dive.
    • Take disciplinary action for unsafe practices.
    • Ensure adherence to the buddy system for scientific diving.
    • Act as the official representative of the MBL in matters concerning the scientific diving program.
    • Act as a board of appeal to consider diver-related problems.
    • Recommend the issue, reissue, or the revocation of diving authorizations.
    • Recommend changes in policy and amendments to AAUS and the MBL’s diving safety manual as the need arises.
    • Establish and/or approve training protocols or standards through which the applicants for authorization can satisfy the requirements of the MBL’s diving safety manual.
    • Suspend diving operations considered to be unsafe or unwise.
    • Establish criteria for equipment selection and use.
    • Recommend new equipment or techniques.
    • Establish and/or approve facilities for the inspection and maintenance of diving and associated equipment.
    • Ensure that the MBL’s air station(s) meet air quality standards as described in Section 3.60.
    • Periodically review the DSO’s performance and program.
    • Investigate diving incidents within the MBL’s diving program or violations of the MBL’s diving safety manual.
  • The DCB may delegate operational oversight for portions of the program to the DSO; however, the DCB may not abdicate responsibility for the safe conduct of the diving program.

Diving Safety Officer

The Diving Safety Officer (DSO) serves as a voting member of the DCB, and should be designated one of the MBL’s Representatives to AAUS.  This person should have broad technical expertise and experience in research related diving.

Qualifications:

  1. Must be an active scuba instructor from an internationally recognized certifying agency.
  2. Must be appointed by the responsible administrative officer or designee, with the advice and counsel of the DCB.
  3. Must qualify as a Full Voting Member of AAUS as defined by AAUS Bylaws:
    • “(a) Holds a diving certification from a recognized national certifying agency or equivalent, and
    • (b) Has engaged in sustained or successive scientific diving activities during the past two years, or
    • (c) Has completed a course in scientific diving that meets the requirements as specified by the most current edition of the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving.”
  1. Must attend an AAUS DSO Orientation within one year of accepting a position at an AAUS approved OM, unless he/she has served as a DSO for another current AAUS OM within the last year.

Duties and Responsibilities

  1. Answers, through the DCB, to the appropriate administrative officer or designee, for the conduct of the scientific diving program of the MBL.
  2. If delegated by the DCB, the routine operational authority for this program rests with the DSO. This oversight includes, but is not limited to: training, diver authorizations, approval of dive plans, maintenance of diving records, and ensuring compliance with this Manual.
  3. May permit some duties and responsibilities to be carried out by a qualified delegate, with the approval of the DCB.
  4. Must be guided in the performance of the required duties by the advice of the DCB, but operational responsibility for the conduct of the scientific diving program will be retained by the DSO.
  5. Must suspend diving operations determined to be unsafe or unwise.

Instructional Personnel Qualifications

All personnel involved in diving instruction under the auspices of the MBL must be reviewed and authorized by the DCB.

Lead Diver

For each dive, one individual shall be designated as the Lead Diver who shall be at the dive location during the diving operation.  The Lead Diver shall be responsible for:

  • Ensuring dives are conducted in accordance with Section 2.0.
  • Ensuring all dive team members possess current authorization and are qualified for the type of diving operation.
  • Coordination with other known activities in the vicinity that are likely to interfere with diving operations.
  • Ensuring safety and emergency equipment is in working order and at the dive site.
  • Suspending diving operations if in their opinion conditions are not safe.
  • Reporting to the DCB, through the DSO, any physical problems or adverse physiological effects including symptoms of pressure-related injuries.

Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver

  • Two or more AAUS OMs engaged jointly in diving activities, or engaged jointly in the use of diving resources, must designate one of the participating DCBs to govern the joint dive project. However, responsibility for individual divers ultimately resides with the home OM.
  • A Scientific Diver from one OM must apply for permission to dive under the auspices of another OM by submitting to the DSO of the host OM a document containing all the information listed in Appendix 6, signed by the DSO or designee of the home DCB.
  • A visiting Scientific Diver may be asked to demonstrate their knowledge and skills for the planned dive.
  • If a host OM denies a visiting Scientific Diver permission to dive, the host DCB must notify the visiting Scientific Diver and their DCB with an explanation of all reasons for the denial.

Waiver of Requirements

The MBL DCB may grant a waiver for specific requirements of training, examinations, depth authorizations, and minimum activity to maintain authorizations. AAUS medical standards may not be waived.

1.30 Consequence of Violation of Regulations by Scientific Divers

Failure to comply with the regulations of the MBL’s diving safety manual may be cause for the restriction or revocation of the diver’s scientific diving authorization by action of the MBL’s DCB.

1.40 Consequences of Violation of Regulations by Organizational Members

Failure to comply with the regulations of this Manual may be cause for the restriction or revocation of the MBL’s recognition by AAUS.

1.50 Record Maintenance

The MBL must maintain consistent records for its diving program and for each participant. These records include but are not limited to: diving safety manual; equipment inspection, testing, and maintenance records; dive plans (project and/or individual); records of dive (project and/or individual); medical approval to dive; diver training records; diver authorization(s); individual dive log; dive incident reports; reports of disciplinary actions by the DCB; and other pertinent information deemed necessary by the MBL.

Availability of Records:

  • Medical records must be available to an attending physician of a diver or former diver when released in writing by the diver.
  • Records and documents required by this Manual must be retained by the MBL for the following period:
  1. Diving safety manual – Current document only.
  2. Equipment inspection, testing, and maintenance records – Minimum current entry or tag.
  3. Records of Dive – minimum of 1 year, except 5 years where there has been an incident of pressure-related injury.
  4. Medical approval to dive – Minimum of 1 year past the expiration of the current document except 5 years where there has been an incident of pressure-related injury.
  5. Diver training records – Minimum of 1 year beyond the life of the diver’s program participation.
  6. Diver authorization(s) – Minimum of 1 year beyond the life of the diver’s program participation.
  7. Pressure-related injury assessment – 5 years.
  8. Reports of disciplinary actions by the DCB – Minimum of 1 year beyond the life of the diver’s program participation.

2.10 Introduction

No person shall engage in scientific diving operations under the auspices of the MBL’s scientific diving program unless they are authorized pursuant to the provisions of this Manual.

2.20 Pre-Dive Procedures

Dive Plans

Before conducting any diving operations under the auspices of the MBL, a dive plan for the proposed project or dive must be formulated and submitted for approval by the DCB or designee.  Dives should be planned around the competency of the least experienced diver.  The dive plan (project or individual) should include the following:

  • Diving Mode(s) and Gas(es)
  • Divers’ authorizations
  • Approximate number of proposed dives
  • Location(s) of proposed dives
  • Estimated depth(s) and bottom time(s) anticipated
  • Decompression status and repetitive dive plans, if required
  • Proposed work, equipment, and boats to be employed
  • Any hazardous conditions anticipated
  • Emergency Action Plan (Appendix 7)
  • In water details of the dive plan should include:
  • Dive Buddy assignments and tasks
  • Goals and objectives
  • Maximum depth(s) and bottom time
  • Gas management plan
  • Entry, exit, descent and ascent procedures
  • Perceived environmental and operational hazards and mitigations
  • Emergency and diver recall procedures

Diver Responsibility and Refusal to Dive

The decision to dive is that of the diver.  The ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the individual diver.  It is the diver’s responsibility and duty to refuse to dive, without fear of penalty, if in his/her judgment, conditions are unsafe or unfavorable, or if he/she would be violating the precepts of regulations in this Manual.

No dive team member will be required to be exposed to hyperbaric conditions against his/her will.

No dive team member may dive for the duration of any known condition, which is likely to adversely affect the safety and health of the diver or other dive team members.

Pre-dive Safety Checks

  • Prior to commencing the dive, the team must assure that every team member is healthy, fit, and trained for the type of dive that is being attempted.
  • Scientific divers must conduct a functional check of their diving equipment in the presence of the dive buddy or tender. They must ensure the equipment is functioning properly and suitable for the type of diving operation being conducted.
  • Each diver must have the capability of achieving and maintaining positive buoyancy at the surface.
  • Environmental conditions at the site will be evaluated prior to entering the water.

Pre-dive Briefings

Before conducting any diving operations under the auspices of the MBL, the dive team members must be briefed on:

  • Dive Buddy assignments and tasks
  • Dive objectives.
  • Maximum depth(s) and bottom time
  • Turn around pressure and required surfacing pressure
  • Entry, exit, descent and ascent procedures
  • Perceived environmental and operational hazards and mitigations
  • Emergency and diver recall procedures

2.30 Diving Procedures

Solo Diving Prohibition

All diving activities must assure adherence to the buddy system.  This buddy system is based upon mutual assistance, especially in the case of an emergency.

Decompression Management

  • On any given dive, both divers in the buddy pair must follow the most conservative dive profile
  • A safety stop performed during the ascent phase of the dive should be conducted on any dive that exceeds 30 feet (9.14m).

Termination of the Dive

Any dive must be terminated while there is still sufficient cylinder pressure to permit the diver to safely reach the surface, including decompression time, or to safely reach an additional air source at the decompression station.

It is the responsibility of the diver to terminate the dive that he/she considers unsafe, without fear of reprisal, in a way that does not compromise the safety of another diver already in the water.

Emergencies and Deviations from Regulations

Any diver may deviate from the requirements of this Manual to the extent necessary to prevent or minimize a situation likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or major environmental damage.  A written report must be submitted to the DCB explaining the circumstances and justifications.

2.40 Post-Dive Procedures

Post-Dive Safety Checks

After the completion of a dive, each diver must report any physical problems, symptoms of decompression sickness, or equipment malfunctions to the Lead Diver, DSO, and/or DCB.

2.50 Emergency Procedures

The MBL will develop emergency procedures which follow the standards of care of the community and must include procedures and implementation criteria for emergency care, recompression, evacuation, and incident reporting.

 2.60 Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude (Over 1000 feet/304 meters)

  • Following a Single No-Decompression Dive: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 12 hours.
  • Following Multiple Dives per Day or Multiple Days of Diving: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 18 hours.
  • Following Dives Requiring Decompression Stops: Divers should have a minimum preflight surface interval of 24 hours.
  • Before Ascending to Altitude Above 1000 feet (304 meters): Divers should follow the appropriate guideline for preflight surface intervals unless the decompression procedure used has accounted for the increase in elevation.

2.70 Record Keeping Requirements

Personal Diving Log

Each authorized scientific diver must log every dive made under the auspices of the MBL’s program and is encouraged to log all other dives.  The MBLs may allow dives to be logged in any format of MBL’s choosing. Logs must be submitted per local protocol and must remain in the divers’ file. The dive log must include at least the following:

  • Name of diver and buddy
  • Date, time, and location
  • Diving modes used
  • General nature of diving activities
  • Maximum depth and dive time
  • Diving tables or computers used
  • Detailed report of any near or actual incidents

Required Incident Reporting

All diving incidents requiring recompression treatment, or resulting in moderate or serious injury, or death must be reported to the MBL’s DCB and AAUS in a timely manner. The MBL must record and report occupational injuries and illnesses in accordance with requirements of the appropriate Labor Code section. The MBLs must investigate and document any incident of pressure-related injury and prepare a report that is to be forwarded to AAUS during the annual reporting cycle.

  • If pressure-related injuries are suspected, or if symptoms are evident, the following additional information must be recorded and retained by the MBL, with the record of the dive, for a period of 5 years:
  • Written descriptive report shall include:
  • Name, address, phone numbers of the principal parties involved.
  • Summary of experience of divers involved.
  • Location, description of dive site, and description of conditions that led up to incident.
  • The circumstances of the incident and the extent of any injuries or illnesses.
  • Description of symptoms, including depth and time of onset.
  • Description and results of treatment.
  • Disposition of case.
  • Recommendations to avoid repetition of incident.

In addition to requirements specific to the MBL, all diving incidents will be reported to the AAUS. This report must first be reviewed and released by the MBL’s DCB and at a minimum contain:

  • Complete AAUS Incident Report.
  • Summary of experience of divers involved.
  • Description of dive site, and description of conditions that led up to incident.
  • The circumstances of the incident and the extent of any injuries or illnesses.
  • Description of symptoms, including depth and time of onset.
  • Description and results of treatment.
  • Disposition of case.
  • Recommendations to avoid repetition of incident.

3.10 General Policy

All equipment must meet standards as determined by the DSO and the DCB.  All equipment must be regularly examined by the person using it and serviced according to manufacturer recommendations.  Equipment that is subjected to extreme usage under adverse conditions should require more frequent testing and maintenance.

3.20 Equipment

The MBL’s DCB must establish the minimum equipment configuration for all dives.

Regulators and Gauges

  • Scuba regulators and gauges must be inspected and tested prior to each use and serviced, at a minimum, according to manufacturer’s recommendations
  • Standard open circuit (OC) regulator configuration is:
    • A first stage
    • Primary 2nd stage
    • Back up 2nd stage
    • Submersible Pressure Gauge (SPG)
    • Inflator hose for a Buoyancy Compensator Device
  • A Full Face Mask may be used in place of the primary 2nd stage according to manufacturer’s recommendations

Equipment for Determination of Decompression Status

  • Each member of the buddy team must have an underwater timing device and depth indicator, or dive computer
  • If dive tables are being used a set must be available at the dive location
  • If a dive computer is used the diver must use the same computer used on repetitive dives.
  • In an aquarium or other manmade structure of a known maximum obtainable depth:
  • A depth indicator is not required, except when a diver’s decompression status must be taken into consideration on repetitive dives.
  • Only one buddy must be equipped with a timing device.
  • The maximum obtainable depth of the aquarium must be used as the diving depth.

Scuba Cylinders

  • Scuba cylinders must be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Unfired Pressure Vessel Safety Orders.
  • Scuba cylinders must be hydrostatically tested in accordance with DOT standards.
  • Scuba cylinders must have an internal and external inspection at intervals not to exceed 12 months.
  • Scuba cylinder valves must be functionally tested at intervals not to exceed 12 months.

Buoyancy Compensation Devices (BCD)

  • Each diver must have the capability of achieving and maintaining neutral buoyancy underwater and positive buoyancy at the surface.
  • BCDs, dry suits, or other variable volume buoyancy compensation devices must be equipped with an exhaust valve.
  • These devices must be functionally inspected and tested at intervals not to exceed 12 months.
  • BCDs, dry suits, or other variable volume buoyancy compensation devices must not be used as a lifting device in lieu of lift bags.

3.30 Auxiliary Equipment

Handheld Underwater Power Tools

  • Power tools and equipment used underwater must be specifically approved for this purpose.
  • Tools and equipment supplied with power from the surface must be de-energized before being placed into or retrieved from the water.
  • Handheld power tools must not be supplied with power from the dive location until requested by the diver.

3.40 Support Equipment

First Aid Supplies

  • A first aid kit and emergency oxygen appropriate for the diving being conducted must be available at the dive site.

Diver’s Flag

  • A diver’s flag must be displayed prominently whenever diving is conducted under circumstances where required or where water traffic is probable.

Compressor Systems – Organizational Member Controlled

The following will be considered in design and location of compressor systems:

  • Low-pressure compressors used to supply air to the diver if equipped with a volume tank must have a check valve on the inlet side, a relief valve, and a drain valve.
  • Compressed air systems over 500 psig must have slow-opening shut-off valves.
  • All air compressor intakes must be located away from areas containing exhaust or other contaminants.

3.50 Equipment Maintenance

Record Keeping

Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration, or maintenance service must be logged, including the date and nature of work performed, serial number of the item (if applicable), and the name of the person performing the work for the following equipment:

  • Regulators
  • Gauges (SPG, Depth Gauges, Timers, and Dive Computers)
  • BCDs
  • Dry suits
  • Scuba cylinders and valves
  • Full Face Masks
  • Compressors, air filtration systems, gas control panels, and storage banks
  • Surface supplied equipment
  • Rebreather systems
  • Additional equipment categories as determined by the DCB

Compressor Operation and Air Test Records

Gas analyses and air tests must be performed on each MBL-controlled breathing air compressor at regular intervals of no more than 100 hours of operation or 6 months, whichever occurs first.  The results of these tests must be entered in a formal log and be maintained.

3.60 Air Quality Standards

Breathing Gas

Breathing gas must meet the following specifications as set forth by the Compressed Gas Association (CGA Pamphlet G-7.1; see table below).

CGA Grade E
Component Maximum
Oxygen 20 – 22%/v
Carbon Monoxide 10 PPM/v
Carbon Dioxide 1000 PPM/v
Condensed Hydrocarbons 5 mg/m3
Total Hydrocarbons as Methane 25 PPM/v
Water Vapor ppm (2)
Objectionable Odors None

For breathing air used in conjunction with self-contained breathing apparatus in extreme cold where moisture can condense and freeze, causing the breathing apparatus to malfunction, a dew point not to exceed -50°F (63 pm v/v) or 10 degrees lower than the coldest temperature expected in the area is required.

Remote Operations

For remote site operations using gas sources not controlled by the MBL, every effort should be made to verify breathing gas meets the requirements of this standard. If CGA Grade E gas is not verifiable, the DCB must develop a protocol to mitigate risk to the diver.

This section describes the training and performance standards for AAUS Scientific Divers and represent the minimum required level of knowledge and skills presented in a generalized format.  Individual diving programs are encouraged to expand upon and augment these requirements, develop or utilize appropriate educational materials, and optimize instructional programs to suit and reflect their specific needs.

4.10 Prerequisites

Administrative

The candidate must complete all administrative and legal documentation required by the MBL.

Entry Level Diver Certification

The candidate must, at minimum, show documented proof of Diver Certification or equivalent from an internationally recognized training agency.  OMs who wish to train and certify entry level divers may do so under the standards of the most current version of the RSTC/WRSTC and/or ISO entry-level diver standards.  Entry level diver training is a prerequisite to scientific diver training and therefore no part of entry level training may be counted in any way toward scientific diver training.

1 “Minimum Course Content for Open Water Diver Certification”- World Recreational Scuba Training Council (WRSTC), www.wrstc.com.

2 “Safety related minimum requirements for the training of recreational scuba divers — Part 2: Level 2 — Autonomous diver”.  ISO 24801-2:2007- International Organization for Standardization (ISO) –  www.iso.org.

Medical Examination

The candidate must be medically qualified for diving as described in Section 5.0 and Appendices 1-4 of this Manual. AAUS medical standards may not be waived.

Swimming/Watermanship Evaluation

The candidate must demonstrate the following in the presence of the DSO or designee.  All tests are to be performed without swim aids.  However, where exposure protection is needed, the candidate must be appropriately weighted to provide for neutral buoyancy.

  • a) Swim underwater for a distance of 25 yards (23 meters) without surfacing.
  • b) Swim 400 yards (366 meters) in less than 12 minutes.
  • c) Tread water for 10 minutes, or 2 minutes without the use of hands.
  • d) Transport a passive person of equal size a distance of 25 yards (23 meters) in the water.

4.20 Training

The candidate must successfully complete prerequisites, theoretical aspects, practical training, and examinations for a minimum cumulative time of 100 hours and a minimum of 12 open water dives.  Theoretical aspects must include principles and activities appropriate to the intended area of scientific study.  Formats for meeting the 100 hour training requirement include the OM’s developed formalized training course, or a combination of formalized and on the job training.

When a diver’s resume provides clear evidence of significant scientific diving experience, the diver can be given credit for meeting portions of the 100 hour course requirements. The DCB will identify specific overlap between on-the-job training, previous scientific diving training/experience and course requirements, and then determine how potential deficiencies will be resolved.   However,MBL cannot “test-out” divers, regardless of experience, when they have no previous experience in scientific diving.

Any candidate who does not convince the DCB, through the DSO, that they possess the necessary judgment, under diving conditions, for the safety of the diver and his/her buddy, may be denied MBL scientific diving privileges.

Theoretical Training / Knowledge Development
Required Topics: Suggested Topics:
Diving Emergency Care Training
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
  • AED
  • Standard or Basic First Aid
  • Recognition of DCS and AGE
  • Accident Management
  • Field Neurological Exam
  • Oxygen Administration
Specific Dive Modes (methods of gas delivery)
  • Open Circuit
  • Hookah
  • Surface Supplied diving
  • Rebreathers (closed and/or semi-closed)
Dive Rescue

To include procedures relevant to OM specific protocols. (See water skills below)

Specialized Breathing Gas
  • Nitrox
  • Mixed Gas
Scientific Method Small Boat Operation
Data Gathering Techniques

(Only items specific to area of study required)

  • Transects and Quadrats
  • Mapping
  • Coring
  • Photography
  • Tagging
  • Collecting
  • Animal Handling
  • Archaeology
  • Common Biota
  • Organism Identification
  • Behavior
  • Ecology
  • Site Selection, Location, and Re-location
  • Specialized Data Gathering Equipment
Specialized Environments and Conditions
  • Blue Water Diving
  • Altitude
  • Ice and Polar Diving (Cold Water Diving)
  • Zero Visibility Diving
  • Polluted Water Diving
  • Saturation Diving
  • Decompression Diving
  • Overhead Environments
  • Aquarium Diving
  • Night Diving
  • Kelp Diving
  • Strong Current Diving
  • Potential Entanglement/Entrapment
  • Live boating
Required Topics: Suggested Topics:
Navigation HazMat Training
Chemical Hygiene, Laboratory Safety (Use of Chemicals)
HazMat Training
  • HP Cylinders
Decompression Management Tools
  • Dive Tables
  • Dive Computers
  • PC Based Software
Specialized Diving Equipment
  • Full face mask
  • Dry Suit
  • Communications
  • Dive Propulsion Vehicle (DPV)
  • SMBs/Lift Bags
  • Line Reels
AAUS Scientific Diving Regulations and History
  • Scientific Dive Planning
  • Coordination with other Agencies
  • Appropriate Governmental Regulations
Hazards of breath-hold diving and ascents
Dive Physics (Beyond entry level scuba) Other Topics and Techniques as Determined by the DCB
Dive Physiology (Beyond entry level scuba)
Dive Environments
Decompression Theory and its Application

 

Practical Training / Skill Development
Confined Water At the completion of training, the trainee must satisfy the DSO or DCB-approved designee of their ability to perform the following, as a minimum, in a pool or in sheltered water:
  • Enter water fully equipped for diving
  • Clear fully flooded face mask
  • Demonstrate air sharing and ascent using an alternate air source, as both donor and recipient, with and without a face mask
  • Demonstrate buddy breathing as both donor and recipient, with and without a face mask
  • Demonstrate understanding of underwater signs and signals
  • Demonstrate ability to remove and replace equipment while submerged
  • Demonstrate acceptable watermanship skills for anticipated scientific diving conditions
Open Water Skills The trainee must satisfy the DSO, or DCB-approved designee, of their ability to perform at least the following in open water:
  • Surface dive to a depth of 10 feet (3 meters) without scuba*
  • Enter and exit water while wearing scuba gear* ^^
  • Kick on the surface 400 yards (366 meters) while wearing scuba gear, but not breathing from the scuba unit*
  • Demonstrate proficiency in air sharing ascent as both donor and receiver*
  • Demonstrate the ability to maneuver efficiently in the environment, at and below the surface* ^^
  • Complete a simulated emergency swimming ascent*
  • Demonstrate clearing of mask and regulator while submerged*
  • Underwater communications^^
  • Demonstrate ability to achieve and maintain neutral buoyancy while submerged*
  • Demonstrate techniques of self-rescue and buddy rescue*
  • Navigate underwater ^
  • Plan and execute a dive^
  • Demonstrate judgment adequate for safe scientific diving* ^^
Rescue Skills:
  • Rescue from depth and transport 25 yards (23 meters), as a diver, a passive simulated victim of an accident: surface diver, establish buoyancy, stabilize victim
  • Demonstrate simulated in-water mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
  • Removal of victim from water to shore or boat
  • Stressed and panicked diver scenarios
  • Recommendations For Rescue Of A Submerged Unresponsive Compressed-Gas Diver – Appendix 9

Successfully complete a minimum of one checkout dive and at least eleven additional open water dives in a variety of dive sites, for a cumulative surface to surface time of 6 hours. Dives following the checkout dive(s) may be supervised by an active Scientific Diver holding the necessary depth authorization experienced in the type of diving planned, and with the knowledge and permission of the DSO

The eleven dives (minimum) following the initial checkout dive may be conducted over a variety of depth ranges as specified by the MBL DCB. Depth progression must proceed shallower to deeper after acceptable skills and judgement have been demonstrated, and are not to exceed 100 feet (30 m) during the initial 12 dive cycle

* Checkout dive element

^^ Evaluated on all dives

^ Evaluated at some point during the training cycle

Examinations
Equipment The trainee will be subject to examination/review of:
  • Personal diving equipment
  • Task specific equipment
  • Function and manipulation of decompression computer to be employed by the diver (if applicable)
Written Exams The trainee must pass a written examination reviewed and approved by the OMBL DCB that demonstrates knowledge of at least the following:
  • Function, care, use, and maintenance of diving equipment
  • Advanced physics and physiology of diving
  • Diving regulations
  • Applicable diving environments
  • Emergency procedures for MBL-specific dive mode(s) and environments, including buoyant ascent and ascent by air sharing
  • Currently accepted decompression theory and procedures
  • Proper use of dive tables
  • Hazards of breath-hold diving and ascents
  • Planning and supervision of diving operations
  • Navigation
  • Diving hazards & mitigations
  • Cause, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of the following: near drowning, air embolism, hypercapnia, squeezes, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis, exhaustion and panic, respiratory fatigue, motion sickness, decompression sickness, hypothermia, and hypoxia/anoxia
  • Applicable theoretical training and knowledge development from the Required and Suggested Topics (above)

4.30 Diver Certification and Authorizations

Only a person diving under the auspices of an OM that subscribes to the practices of the AAUS is eligible for a scientific diver certification.

Diver-In-Training (DIT) Authorization

This is an authorization to dive, usable only while it is current and for the purpose intended. This authorization signifies that a diver has completed and been certified as at least an entry level diver through an internationally recognized certifying agency and has the knowledge skills and experience necessary to commence and continue training as a scientific diver under supervision, as approved by the DCB. DIT status must only be used when the diver is on his/her way to becoming certified as a scientific diver. While it is recommended for DIT’s to have hands-on scientific diver experience during their training, the DIT status is intended to be a temporary authorization, not a substitute for Scientific Diver Certification.

Scientific Diver Certification

Signifies a diver has completed all requirements in Section 4.20 and is certified by the MBL to engage in scientific diving without supervision, as approved by the DCB through the DSO. Submission of documents and participation in aptitude examinations does not automatically result in certification.  To be certified, the applicant must demonstrate to the DCB, through the DSO, that s/he is sufficiently skilled and proficient, and possess the necessary judgement for their safety and/or that of the dive team. Scientific Diver Certification is only active when required authorizations are in place and current.

Temporary Diver Authorization

Only a diver not under the auspices of MBL may be granted a Temporary Diver Authorization. The individual in question must demonstrate proficiency in diving and can contribute measurably to a planned dive. A Temporary Diver Authorization constitutes a waiver of selected requirements of Section 4.0 and is valid only for a limited time, as approved by the DCB.  A Temporary Diver Authorization must be restricted to the planned diving operation and must comply with all other policies, regulations, and standards of this Manual, including medical requirements. This authorization is not to be utilized as a repeated mechanism to circumvent existing standards set forth in this Manual.

4.40 Depth Authorizations

Depth Ratings and Progression to Next Depth Level

Indicates the maximum depth in which a diver can conduct science and may supervise other divers holding a lesser depth authorization. A scientific diver requires a valid depth authorization to be considered active.

A diver may be authorized to the next depth level after successfully completing the requirements for that level. A diver may exceed his/her depth authorization when accompanied and supervised by a dive buddy holding a depth authorization greater or equal to the intended depth. Dives must be planned and executed with the permission of the DCB or designee.

In the event a diver within the MBL does not hold an authorization at the desired next level, the DCB may authorize a required progression or procedure for a diver to attain a deeper authorization. If local conditions do not conform to traditional AAUS depth progressions, the DCB may devise a reasonable accommodation. However, the total number of dives to obtain a given depth authorization must follow the cumulative number of dives listed below.

  • a) Authorization to 30 Foot Depth – Initial science diver depth authorization, approved upon the successful completion of training listed in Section 4.00. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 12.
  • b) Authorization to 60 Foot Depth – A diver holding a 30-foot authorization may be authorized to a depth of 60 feet after successfully completing and logging 12 supervised dives to depths between 31 and 60 feet under supervision of a diver authorized by the DCB, for a minimum total time of 4 hours. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 24.
  • c) Authorization to 100 Foot Depth – A diver holding a 60-foot authorization may be authorized to a depth of 100 feet after successfully completing and logging 6 supervised dives to depths between 61 and 100 feet under supervision of a dive buddy authorized by the DCB. The diver must also demonstrate proficiency in the use of the appropriate decompression profiling method. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 30.
  • d) Authorization to 130 Foot Depth – A diver holding a 100-foot authorization may be authorized to a depth of 130 feet after successfully completing and logging 6 supervised dives to depths between 100 and 130 feet under supervision of a dive buddy authorized by the DCB. The diver must also demonstrate proficiency in the use of the appropriate decompression profiling method. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 36.
  • e) Authorization to 150 Foot Depth – A diver holding a 130-foot authorization may be authorized to a depth of 150 feet after successfully completing and logging 6 supervised dives to depths between 130 and 150 feet under supervision of a dive buddy authorized by the DCB. The diver must also demonstrate knowledge of the special problems of deep diving and of special safety requirements. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 42.
  • f) Authorization to 190 Foot Depth – A diver holding a 150-foot authorization may be authorized to a depth of 190 feet after successfully completing and logging 6 dives to depths between 150 and 190 feet under supervision of a dive buddy authorized by the DCB. The diver must also demonstrate knowledge of the special problems of deep diving and of special safety requirements. Cumulative minimum supervised dives: 48.

Diving on air is not permitted beyond a depth of 190 feet. Dives beyond 190 feet require the use of mixed gas.

4.50 Maintaining Active Status

Minimum Activity to Maintain Authorizations

During any 12-month period, each scientific diver must log a minimum of 12 scientific, scientific training, or proficiency dives.  At least one dive must be logged near the maximum depth, as defined by the DCB, of the diver’s authorization during each 6-month period.  Divers authorized to 150 feet or deeper may satisfy these requirements with dives to 130 feet or deeper.  Failure to meet these requirements will result in revocation or restriction of authorization by the DSO under procedures established by the DCB.

Requalification of Authorization

Once the initial requirements of Section 4.00 are met, divers whose depth authorization has lapsed due to lack of activity may be requalified by procedures adopted by the DCB.

Medical Examination

All scientific divers must pass a medical examination at the intervals specified in Section 5.0.  A medically cleared diver experiencing any Conditions Which May Disqualify Candidates From Diving (Appendix 1) must receive clearance to return to diving from a physician before resuming diving activities.  This medical examination requirement cannot be waived for any diver.

Emergency Care Training

The scientific diver must hold current training in the following:

  • Adult CPR and AED
  • Emergency oxygen administration
  • First aid for diving accidents

4.60 Revocation of Authorization

An individual’s scientific diver certification can be restricted or revoked for cause by the DCB. Authorizations associated with an individual’s scientific diver certification may be restricted or suspended for cause by the DSO. Restrictions or suspensions issued by the DSO may be rescinded by the DSO; these issues will be reported to and reviewed by the DCB, and the outcomes or actions resulting from this review will be documented in the diver’s MBL record. Violations of regulations set forth in this Manual or other governmental subdivisions not in conflict with this Manual, or demonstration of poor judgement, may be considered cause.  The DCB or designee must inform the diver in writing of the reason(s) for revocation. The diver will be given the opportunity to present their case in writing to the DCB for reconsideration. Following revocation, the diver may be reauthorized after complying with conditions the DCB may impose.  All such written statements and requests, as identified in this section, are formal documents, and therefore part of the diver’s file.

5.10 Medical Requirements

General

  • All medical evaluations required by this Manual must be performed by, or under the direction of, a licensed physician of the applicant-diver’s choice, preferably one trained in diving/undersea medicine.
  • The diver should be free of any chronic disabling disease and any conditions contained in the list of conditions for which restrictions from diving are generally recommended. (Appendix 1)
  • The MBL must verify that divers have been declared by the examining medical authority to be fit to engage in diving activities.

5.20 Frequency of Medical Evaluations

Medical evaluation must be completed:
Before Age 40 After age 40 Before Age 60 After Age 60
Before a diver may begin diving, unless an equivalent initial medical evaluation has been given within the preceding 5 years Before a diver may begin diving, unless an equivalent initial medical evaluation has been given within the preceding 3 years Before a diver may begin diving, unless an equivalent initial medical evaluation has been given within the preceding 2 years
At 5-year intervals At 3-year intervals At 2-year intervals
Clearance to return to diving must be obtained from a healthcare provider following a medically cleared diver experiencing any Conditions Which May Disqualify Candidates From Diving (Appendix 1), or following any major injury or illness, or any condition requiring chronic medication. If the condition is pressure related, the clearance to return to diving must come from a physician trained in diving medicine.

5.30 Information Provided Examining Physician

The MBL must provide a copy of the medical evaluation requirements of this Manual to the examining physician. (Appendices 1, 2, and 3).

5.40 Content of Medical Evaluations

Medical examinations conducted initially and at the intervals specified in Section 5.20 must consist of the following:

  1. Diving physical examination (Appendix 2). Modifications or omissions of required tests are not permitted
  2. Applicant agreement for release of medical information to the Diving Safety Officer and the DCB (Appendix 2b)
  3. Medical history (Appendix 3)

5.50 Physician’s Written Report

  • A Medical Evaluation of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report (or MBL equivalent) signed by the examining physician stating the individual’s fitness to dive, including any recommended restrictions or limitations will be submitted to the MBL for the diver’s record after the examination is completed.
  • The Medical Evaluation of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report will be reviewed by the DCB or designee and the diver’s record and authorizations will be updated accordingly.
  • A copy of any physician’s written reports will be made available to the individual.
  • It is the diver’s responsibility to provide to the MBL a written statement from the examining medical authority listing any restrictions, limitations, or clearances to dive resulting from medical examinations obtained by the individual outside of their normal diving medical examination cycle. These statements will be reviewed by the DCB or designee and the diver’s record and authorizations will be updated accordingly.

This section describes the requirements for authorization and use of nitrox for Scientific Diving.

6.10 Requirements for Nitrox Authorization

Prior to authorization to use nitrox, the following minimum requirements must be met:

Prerequisites

Only a certified Scientific Diver or DIT diving under the auspices of the MBL is eligible for authorization to use nitrox.

Application for authorization to use nitrox must be made to the DCB. Submission of documents and participation in aptitude examinations does not automatically result in authorization to use nitrox.  The applicant must convince the DCB through the DSO that they are sufficiently knowledgeable, skilled and proficient in the theory and use of nitrox for diving.

Training

In lieu of writing/promulgating AAUS specific training standards for Nitrox divers, AAUS references the standards for Nitrox diver training as defined by the WRSTC and/or ISO.  AAUS programs who wish to train Nitrox divers may do so using one of the following options:

  • a) Under the auspices and standards of an internationally recognized diver training agency.
  • b) Under the auspices of AAUS using the minimum guidelines presented by the most current version of the RSTC/WRSTC and/or ISO Nitrox diver training standards.

References:

“Minimum Course Content for Enriched Air Nitrox Certification” – World Recreational Scuba Training Council (WRSTC).

“Recreational diving services- Requirements for training programs on enriches air nitrox (EAN) diving”. ISO 11107:2009 – International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Practical Evaluation

  • Oxygen analysis of nitrox mixtures.
  • Determination of MOD, oxygen partial pressure exposure, and oxygen toxicity time limits, for various nitrox mixtures at various depths.
  • Determination of nitrogen-based dive limits status by EAD method using air dive tables, and/or using nitrox dive tables, as approved by the DCB.
  • Nitrox dive computer use may be included, as approved by the DCB.
  • A minimum of two supervised open water dives using nitrox is required for authorization.

Written Evaluation

  • Function, care, use, and maintenance of equipment cleaned for nitrox use.
  • Physical and physiological considerations of nitrox diving (eg.: O2 and CO2 toxicity)
  • Diving regulations, procedures/operations, and dive planning as related to nitrox diving
  • Equipment marking and maintenance requirements
  • Dive table and/or dive computer usage
  • Calculation of: MOD, pO2, and other aspects of Nitrox diving as required by the DCB

6.20 Minimum Activity to Maintain Authorization

The diver should log at least one nitrox dive per year.  Failure to meet the minimum activity level may be cause for restriction or revocation of nitrox authorization.

6.30 Operational Requirements

Oxygen Exposure Limits

  • The inspired oxygen partial pressure experienced at depth should not exceed 1.6 ATA.
  • The maximum allowable exposure limit should be reduced in cases where cold or strenuous dive conditions, or extended exposure times are expected.

Calculation of Decompression Status

  • A set of MBL/DCB approved nitrox dive tables should be available at the dive site.
  • Dive computers may be used to compute decompression status during nitrox dives. Manufacturers’ guidelines and operation instructions should be followed.
  • Dive computers capable of pO2 limit and fO2 adjustment should be checked by the diver prior to the start each dive to ensure conformity with the mix being used.

Gas Mixture Requirements

  • Only nitrox mixtures and mixing methods approved by the MBL/DCB may be used.
  • MBL personnel mixing nitrox must be qualified and approved by the MBL/DCB for the method(s) used.
  • Oxygen used for mixing nitrox should meet the purity levels for “Medical Grade” (U.S.P.) or “Aviator Grade” standards.
  • In addition to the AAUS Air Purity Guidelines outlined in Section 3.60, any air that may come in contact with oxygen concentrations greater than 40% (i.e.. during mixing), must also have a hydrocarbon contaminant no greater than .01 mg/m3.
    • For remote site operations using compressors not controlled by the MBL where this is not verifiable, the DCB must develop a protocol to mitigate risk to the diver.

Analysis Verification by User

  • Prior to the dive, it is the responsibility of each diver to analyze the oxygen content of his/her scuba cylinder and acknowledge in writing the following information for each cylinder: fO2, MOD, cylinder pressure, date of analysis, and user’s name.
  • Individual dive log reporting forms should report fO2 of nitrox used, if different than 21%.

6.40 Nitrox Diving Equipment

Required Equipment

All of the designated equipment and stated requirements regarding scuba equipment required in the MBL/AAUS Manual apply to nitrox operations. Additional minimal equipment necessary for nitrox diving operations includes:

  • Labeled SCUBA Cylinders in Accordance with Industry Standards
  • Oxygen Analyzers
  • Oxygen compatible equipment as applicable

Requirement for Oxygen Service

  • All equipment, which during the dive or cylinder filling process is exposed to concentrations greater than 40% oxygen, should be cleaned and maintained for oxygen service.
  • Any equipment used with oxygen or mixtures containing over 40% by volume oxygen must be designed and maintained for oxygen service. Oxygen systems over 125 psig must have slow-opening shut-off valves.

Compressor system

  • Compressor/filtration system must produce oil-free air, or
  • An oil-lubricated compressor placed in service for a nitrox system should be checked for oil and hydrocarbon contamination at least quarterly.

Click here to download Appendices 1-9 (Word Doc)

Appendix 1 – Diving Medical Exam Overview For The Examining Physician

Appendix 2 – AAUS Medical Evaluation Of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report

Appendix 2b – AAUS/MBL Medical Evaluation Of Fitness For Scuba Diving Report

Appendix 3 – Diving Medical History Form

Appendix 4 – Recommended Physicians With Expertise In Diving Medicine

Appendix 5 – Definition Of Terms

Appendix 6 – MBL/AAUS Request For Diving Reciprocity Form
Verification Of Diver Training And Experience

Appendix 7 – Emergency Action Plan

Appendix 8 – MBL/AAUS Statistics Collection Criteria And Definitions

Appendix 9 – Recommendations For Rescue Of A Submerged Unresponsive Compressed-Gas Diver